Recent Preprints

  • Evolving Mobile Cloud Gaming with 5G Standalone Network Telemetry (arxiv)
    February 6, 2024
    Authors: Haoran Wan, Kyle Jamieson. Abstract: Mobile cloud gaming places the simultaneous demands of high capacity and low latency on the wireless network, demands that Private and Metropolitan-Area Standalone 5G networks are poised to meet. However, lacking introspection into the 5G Radio Access Network (RAN), cloud gaming servers are ill-poised to cope with the vagaries of the wireless last hop to a mobile client, while 5G network operators run mostly closed networks, limiting their potential for co-design with the wider internet and user applications. This paper presents Telesa, a passive, incrementally-deployable, and independently-deployable Standalone 5G network telemetry system that streams fine-grained RAN capacity, latency, and retransmission information to application servers to enable better millisecond scale, application-level decisions on offered load and bit rate adaptation than end-to-end latency measurements or end-to-end packet losses currently permit. We design, implement, and evaluate a Telesa telemetry-enhanced game streaming platform, demonstrating exact congestion-control that can better adapt game video bitrate while simultaneously controlling end-to-end latency, thus maximizing game quality of experience. Our experimental evaluation on a production 5G Standalone network demonstrates a 178-249% Quality of Experience improvement versus two state-of-the-art cloud gaming applications.
  • LoLa: Low-Latency Realtime Video Conferencing over Multiple Cellular Carriers (arxiv)
    December 19, 2023
    Authors: Sara Ayoubi, Giulio Grassi, Giovanni Pau, Kyle Jamieson, Renata Teixeira. Abstract: LoLa is a novel multi-path system for video conferencing applications over cellular networks. It provides significant gains over single link solutions when the link quality over different cellular networks fluctuate dramatically and independently over time, or when aggregating the throughput across different cellular links improves the perceived video quality. LoLa achieves this by continuously estimating the quality of available cellular links to decide how to strip video packets across them without inducing delays or packet drops. It is also tightly coupled with state-of-the-art video codec to dynamically adapt video frame size to respond quickly to changing network conditions. Using multiple traces collected over 4 different cellular operators in a large metropolitan city, we demonstrate that LoLa provides significant gains in terms of throughput and delays compared to state-of-the-art real-time video conferencing solution.
  • Physics-Inspired Discrete-Phase Optimization for 3D Beamforming with PIN-Diode Extra-Large Antenna Arrays (arxiv)
    October 30, 2023
    Authors: Minsung Kim, Annalise Stockley, Keith Briggs, Kyle Jamieson. Abstract: Large antenna arrays can steer narrow beams towards a target area, and thus improve the communications capacity of wireless channels and the fidelity of radio sensing. Hardware that is capable of continuously-variable phase shifts is expensive, presenting scaling challenges. PIN diodes that apply only discrete phase shifts are promising and cost-effective; however, unlike continuous phase shifters, finding the best phase configuration across elements is an NP-hard optimization problem. Thus, the complexity of optimization becomes a new bottleneck for large-antenna arrays. To address this challenge, this paper suggests a procedure for converting the optimization objective function from a ratio of quadratic functions to a sequence of more easily solvable quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) sub-problems. This conversion is an exact equivalence, and the resulting QUBO forms are standard input formats for various physics-inspired optimization methods. We demonstrate that a simulated annealing approach is very effective for solving these sub-problems, and we give performance metrics for several large array types optimized by this technique. Through numerical experiments, we report 3D beamforming performance for extra-large arrays with up to 10,000 elements.
  • Physics-Inspired Discrete-Phase Optimization for 3D Beamforming with PIN-Diode Extra-Large Antenna Arrays (arxiv)
    October 30, 2023
    Authors: Minsung Kim, Annalise Stockley, Keith Briggs, Kyle Jamieson. Abstract: Large antenna arrays can steer narrow beams towards a target area, and thus improve the communications capacity of wireless channels and the fidelity of radio sensing. Hardware that is capable of continuously-variable phase shifts is expensive, presenting scaling challenges. PIN diodes that apply only discrete phase shifts are promising and cost-effective; however, unlike continuous phase shifters, finding the best phase configuration across elements is an NP-hard optimization problem. Thus, the complexity of optimization becomes a new bottleneck for large-antenna arrays. To address this challenge, this paper suggests a procedure for converting the optimization objective function from a ratio of quadratic functions to a sequence of more easily solvable quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) sub-problems. This conversion is an exact equivalence, and the resulting QUBO forms are standard input formats for various physics-inspired optimization methods. We demonstrate that a simulated annealing approach is very effective for solving these sub-problems, and we give performance metrics for several large array types optimized by this technique. Through numerical experiments, we report 3D beamforming performance for extra-large arrays with up to 10,000 elements.
  • WaveFlex: A Smart Surface for Private CBRS Wireless Cellular Networks (arxiv)
    October 17, 2023
    Authors: Fan Yi, Kun Woo Cho, Yaxiong Xie, Kyle Jamieson. Abstract: We present the design and implementation of WaveFlex, the first smart surface that enhances Private LTE/5G networks operating under the shared-license framework in the Citizens Broadband Radio Service frequency band. WaveFlex works in the presence of frequency diversity: multiple nearby base stations operating on different frequencies, as dictated by a Spectrum Access System coordinator. It also handles time dynamism: due to the dynamic sharing rules of the band, base stations occasionally switch channels, especially when priority users enter the network. Finally, WaveFlex operates independently of the network itself, not requiring access to nor modification of the base station or mobile users, yet it remain compliant with and effective on prevailing cellular protocols. We have designed and fabricated WaveFlex on a custom multi-layer PCB, software defined radio-based network monitor, and supporting control software and hardware. Our experimental evaluation benchmarks an operational Private LTE network running at full line rate. Results demonstrate an 8.50 dB average SNR gain, and an average throughput gain of 4.36 Mbps for a single small cell, and 3.19 Mbps for four small cells, in a realistic indoor office scenario.